Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/3D Viewport prozor
Blender 3D Viewport prozor je mjesto gdje ćete provoditi najviše vremena. Blender 3D vam daje 100% kontrolu toga kako vidite vaše okruženje. Ovdje je nekoliko stvari koje možete naučiti o korištenju 3D Viewporta.
Position the mouse pointer over the pink square in the middle of the 3D window.
- Hold down the MMB and drag the mouse from side to side and up and down.
- Hold ALT+LMB for the same effect (on some Window-managers on Linux this won't work, it'll only move the Window)
- To rotate so that "upwards" stays "upwards", use CTRL+ALT+SCROLL
NOTE: if you have your own setting for the MMB in mouse configuration, you must reset this to use the MMB as a real Middle Mouse Button (no Doubleclick or something else). Otherwise you must use the alternate ALT+LMB for the same effect.
It's a cube! Holding down the MMB is the quickest and easiest way to rotate your view and get a new perspective on things. Right now you're looking at the cube in what's known as Wireframe Mode. Pressing ZKEY (yes, on your keyboard, the Z key) will toggle back and forth between Wireframe Mode and Solid Mode. Pressing NUM5 will toggle between Orthographic and Perspective (perspective looks more natural). This does not affect how your final product will appear, only the way you see your scene while you're creating it.
As you move the view around, you will see that there are four objects in your 3D scene by default:
1) The Camera
The camera location and rotation will determine what you will see at render time. To see in your 3D viewport what the camera will see, activate that window by holding the mouse cursor over it and press NUM0(remember 0KEY is different).
2) A Lamp
A lamp is simply a light source. It will not be rendered, but the light it provides to the scene will be rendered.
3) A Cube
This object will be rendered. The camera should be pointing at the cube so that you will see it at rendertime.
4) The 3D Cursor (works like an 'insertion point')
This is not an object, but a tool for the artist to use to choose where to put new objects in the scene, much like the cursor when you're typing on a word processor (the 'insertion point').
Later you will learn more about how to use each of these.
[NOTE: If you are using a keyboard which doesn't have a numpad, e.g. a laptop, see laptop commands below.]
Holding the mouse over your 3D Viewport and pressing the NUM7, NUM1, and NUM3 buttons will bring you back to perfectly aligned top, front, and side views respectively. Pressing CTRL+NUM7, CTRL+NUM1, and CTRL+NUM3 will result in displaying the bottom, back, and other side views, respectively. Try each of these views, and watch the camera and light move around with respect to your new viewpoint (make sure your NUMLOCK is on. Otherwise, this will not work).
Similarly, holding the mouse over a viewport and pressing NUM2, NUM4, NUM6, and NUM8 will rotate the view down, left, right, and up respectively.
The object the viewport orbits around can be changed to a new object by first selecting it with the RMB and then pressing NUM. (the period key on the numpad) or NUM, (the comma key on the numpad) on some keyboard layouts.
Again, remember in Blender that there is a big difference between the number keys on your numberpad and the number keys along the top of the keyboard. For example, NUM7 refers to the number 7 on the numberpad, while 7KEY refers to the number 7 that's above the YKEY and UKEY on the standard US keyboard. If you accidentally pressed 1KEY, 3KEY, or 7KEY during this step and it appears that everything disappeared, you can fix this by pressing the `KEY (that's a single back-quote key, to the left of the 1KEY on a US or UK keyboard, usually on the same key as ~, not the single forward quote or apostrophe that is on the same key as the double quote). If you use a notebook laptop try pressing 1KEY (it worked for me - `KEY didn't).
[NOTE: the 1KEY through 0KEY and alt-1KEY through alt-0KEY switch layers. Hold shift to select more than one layer. `KEY selects all 20 layers. Layers will be covered later.]
Za korisnike laptopa: num lock[uredi]
As previously mentioned in this tutorial, recent laptops (some PC and all recent Mac) have a set of regular keys (from M in the lower left to 9 in the upper right) with additional markings corresponding to a regular numpad. This behavior can be toggled with F6 (or the key labelled num lock, this may require pressing FN+numlock key) (FN+F11 on some Dells and Toshibas). If nothing else works, or as an alternative, you can temporarily activate the numpad behavior by holding the FN key (lower left corner of the keyboard) and using the keys as a numpad until you release FN. This allows convenient use of the numpad camera controls without interfering with the normal use of that set of keys. Also you may pull down the User Preferences window, at the top (menu bar window), choose the "System and OpenGL" button, and click on "Emulate Numpad" to use the normal numbers as if they were the number keys on the pad (NUM0 == 0KEY at that point).
For simply rotating around the object, press both the right and left mouse button and drag.
If you envision using your laptop for this kind of work, or indeed any work involving numeric data inputting, it may be worth investing in a USB Numeric Keypad, as Blender uses the numeric keypad quite a bit. Prices range from between $15 to $20 for a basic keypad.
Panning the View[uredi]
To pan the view, you have your choice of alternatives:
—and move your mouse. Alternatively, if you have a scroll wheel you can use SHIFT+Scroll to pan up and down and CTRL-scroll to pan left and right.
[You also have choice of keyboard alternatives: CTRL+NUM:2,4,6,8
CTRL+NUM2 pans down; CTRL+NUM4 pans left; CTRL+NUM6 pans right; CTRL+NUM8 pans up.]
(i suggest learning panning with MMB, edit by bjfire, please re-edit, reformat, and delete this().)
Panning is an important skill to master; try it now.
Note that you must press SHIFT before MMB, otherwise your view will rotate instead of panning.
Also note, that in Windows XP the simultanious pressing of SHIFT+ALT is used to switch the keyboard layout (for example QWERTZ becomes AZERTY and vice versa). So when you find your keyboard layout all messed up, press SHIFT+ALT again, until it fits.
It's recommended using SHIFT+MMB instead.
Zooming in and out the view is also important. Again, Blender offers you several ways to do what you need to do:
- If your mouse has a scroll wheel, scroll it.
- CTRL+ALT+LMB and scroll up and down (not left or right)
- NUM+ and NUM-
Try these all out. Can you see this being useful?
Tip za profesionalce[uredi]
- If you can, find a mouse with side buttons. Anything like Microsoft's Intellimouse, or Logitech's Mediaplay, that have back/forth buttons, will do. Map those buttons to the MMB. This makes camera control feel a LOT more intuitive (plus it frees up a finger).
Postavljanje 3D kursora[uredi]
Click the LMB to the right of the cube, half-way between the edge of the window and the cube. The red and white circle (the 3D cursor) moves to where you clicked. Rotate again and notice that the 3D cursor marks a point in 3D space.
In any given rotational perspective, the set of possible 3D points where you can place the cursor is defined by the plane of your screen. If you're looking at the standard plane straight-on (meaning the standard plane is exactly parallel to your screen), you will place the cursor at the same height above or below the standard plane no matter where you click. Don't worry, you'll understand this point soon enough.
A more interesting experiment is to rotate the standard plane so the left end is farther away from you (and thus farther away from the plane of your screen) than the right. In this view, placing the cursor on the left will put it more toward the front of the plane, and placing it on the right will put it more toward the back.
Try the following exercise: put the 3D cursor inside the camera. Be sure to view the scene from different angles to make sure the cursor is in fact inside. Now put the cursor back inside the cube.
(I had trouble with this. Clicking the LMB on the camera selected it, instead of moving the 3D cursor. Exercise worked fine with the cube and the light though. Or was this to illustrate that the camera behaves differently to the other objects?)
If you're finding this difficult, try this: Press NUM7 to get to the top view and click on the position you want to place the 3D cursor at. This will set two of the axes of the cursor precisely (X and Y), but the Z could be above or below the point you want. To fix this, press NUM1 to get to another view, and click again on the position to place the cursor at. With these two clicks, Blender will have all the 3 coordinates of the cursor position and you will have placed it exactly.
(Reader:- I've discovered it helps a lot if you are in Object Mode and not in Edit Mode. I wrote the following before discovering this:- The problem with this exercise, for me, is that left clicking on the cube selects the cube instead of moving the 3d cursor. If I click on the cube outside of its central white cicle I can get the cursor to move there, but only to outside of this white circle, and even then this only works sometimes.)
Dodavanje i brisanje objekata[uredi]
Make sure you are in Object Mode. If not, press TAB. The tab key switches between the edit and object modes. A status bar at the top-right of the window will indicate the current mode by displaying 'Ob' or 'Ed' depending on the currently toggled mode.
Click RMB (Cmd+LMB on Mac) on the cube to be sure it's selected. Press the XKEY or DELKEY to delete it. A window will prompt you to erase object. Click "Erase Selected."
To add an object, press SPACE. A menu comes up which is called the Toolbox. Select Add → Mesh → Monkey. (or just Add → Monkey if you are in Edit mode)
A new object will be added, and you will be in what's known as Edit Mode. Press TAB to get out of Edit Mode, then CKEY to center the screen on the cursor (where the monkey appeared). Press ZKEY a couple of times, which toggles the 3D Viewport between drawing the monkey solid and drawing it wireframe. Zoom in and out for a closer look (scroll the MMB, NUM+, or ALT+CTRL+LMB).